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  1. Hall of Maat: The Emergence of Civilizations to BCE
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It is Saivism's most widespread and influential school.

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Pashupata Saivism emerged in the Himalayan hills over 25 centuries ago. Ancient writings chronicle it as a Siva ascetic yoga path whose most renowned guru was Lakulisha. Kashmir Saivism, a strongly monistic lineage, arose from the revelatory aphorisms of Sri Vasugupta in the tenth century. Vira Saivism took shape in India's Karnataka state in the 12th-century under the inspiration of Sri Basavanna. It is a dynamic, reformist sect, rejecting religious complexity and stressing each devotee's personal relationship with God.

Siddha Siddhanta, also known as Gorakshanatha Saivism, takes its name from the writings of the powerful 10th-century yogi, Sri Gorakshanatha, whose techniques for Siva identity attracted a large monastic and householder following in North India and Nepal. Siva Advaita is a Saivite interpretation of the Vedanta Sutras, based on the writings of Srikantha, a 12th-century scholar who sought to reconcile the Upanishads with the Agamas.

See: individual school entries. Saivite Saiva : Sanskrit Of or relating to Saivism or its adherents, of whom there are about million in the world today. See: Hinduism, Saivism. Known as nef in the mystical Natha language of Shum. See: awareness, consciousness individual , chit, Shum, soul. Sama Veda: Sanskrit "Song of wisdom. Ninety percent of its 1, stanzas are derived from the Rig Veda. It is a collection of hymns specially arranged and notated for chanting with a distinctive melody and cadence by the Udgata priests during yajna, fire ceremony, together with stanzas from the Yajur Veda.

This Veda forms the oldest known form of Indian music. See: Shruti, Vedas. Samadhi is of two levels. The first is savikalpa samadhi "enstasy with form or seed" , identification or oneness with the essence of an object.

Its highest form is the realization of the primal substratum or pure consciousness, Satchidananda. The second is nirvikalpa samadhi "enstasy without form or seed" , identification with the Self, in which all modes of consciousness are transcended and Absolute Reality, Parasiva, beyond time, form and space, is experienced.

This brings in its aftermath a complete transformation of consciousness. In Classical Yoga, nirvikalpa samadhi is known as asamprajnata samadhi, "supraconscious enstasy"--samadhi, or beingness, without thought or cognition, prajna. Savikalpa samadhi is also called samprajnata samadhi, "conscious enstasy.

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Hall of Maat: The Emergence of Civilizations to BCE

As explained by Patanjali, samyama consists of dharana, dhyana and samadhi. See: enstasy, kundalini, Parasiva, raja yoga, samarasa, Satchidananda, Self Realization, trance. Similar in concept to sayujya samadhi. See: jnana, kaivalya, samadhi, Siddha Siddhanta, Sivasayujya. See: samskaras.

Empires in India

Sambandar: Tamil Child saint of the 7th-century Saivite renaissance. Composed many Devaram hymns in praise of Siva, reconverted at least one Tamil king who had embraced Jainism, and vehemently sought to counter the incursion of Buddhism, bringing the Tamil people back to Saivism.

See: Nalvar, Nayanar, Tirumurai. See: Vedas. A living stream of tradition or theology within Hinduism, passed on by oral training and initiation. The term derives from the verb samprada, meaning "gift, grant, bestowing or conferring; handing down by tradition; bequeathing. It is more inclusive than the related term parampara which names a living lineage of ordained gurus who embody and carry forth a sampradaya. A sampradaya may be represented by many paramparas.

See: parampara. Transmigratory existence, fraught with impermanence and change. The cycle of birth, death and rebirth; the total pattern of successive earthly lives experienced by a soul. A term similar to punarjanma reincarnation , but with broader connotations. See: evolution of the soul, karma, punarjanma, reincarnation.

BY Michael & Robin Mastro

A samsari is someone who is not "on the path. These make deep and positive impressions on the mind of the recipient, inform the family and community of changes in the lives of its members and secure inner-world blessings. The numerous samskaras are outlined in the Grihya Shastras. Most are accompanied by specific mantras from the Vedas. See: mind five states , sacrament. A custom, found in all societies, based on the need for men to defend the country, run the family business and support the parents in old age.

The need for male children in such societies is also based on the fact that women outlive men and leave the family to join their husband's family.

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See: samskara. The name is chosen according to astrology, preferably the name of a God or Goddess. At this time, guardian devas are assigned to see the child through life. One who converts to or adopts Hinduism later in life would receive this same sacrament. Breast-feeding generally continues. See: earrings. A home blessing marking the coming of age for girls. Both of the above are home ceremonies in which the young ones are reminded of their brahmacharya, given new clothes and jewelry and joyously admitted into the adult community as young adults.

Decline of Indus Civilization and Vedic Upheaval (Chapter-6)

To conclude the ceremony, the couple take seven steps to the Northeast as the groom recites: "One step for vigor, two steps for vitality, three steps for prosperity, four steps for happiness, five steps for cattle, six steps for seasons, seven steps for friendship. To me be devoted Hiranyakeshi Grihya Sutras 1. See: sannyasa dharma. See: cremation, death, pinda, shraddha, bone-gathering, samskara, shashtyabda purti, transition.

San Marga: Sanskrit "True path. A San Margi is a person "on the path," as opposed to a samsari, one engrossed in worldliness. San Marga also names the jnana pada.

See: pada, sadhana marga, samsari. Here pilgrims follow the H-mile path, San Marga, to a natural Sivalinga, walk the path of the Tamil Nayanars around picturesque lotus lakes and ponds and visit the six shrines of the Kailasa Parampara on the banks of Saravanabhava Lake in Rishi Valley. Paths lead visitors to the sacred Wailua River, then up stone stairs to the Chola-style white-granite Iraivan Temple, hand-carved in Bangalore, India. In the sanctum sanctorum, the Supreme God, Siva Parameshvara-Parashakti-Parasiva , will be enshrined as a massive pound, single-pointed earthkeeper quartz crystal.

San Marga Sanctuary, founded in , is among many public services of Saiva Siddhanta Church, one of America's senior Hindu religious institutions. See: Subramuniyaswami, tirtha. Sanatana Dharma: Sanskrit "Eternal religion" or "everlasting path. See: Hinduism. Sanatkumara: Sanskrit "Ever-youthful; perpetual virgin boy. See: karma.

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The most sacred part of a temple, usually a cave-like stone chamber, in which the main icon is installed. See: darshana, garbhagriha, temple. The Asian evergreen tree Santalum album. Its sweetly fragrant heartwood is ground into the fine, tan-colored paste distributed as prasada in Saivite temples and used for sacred marks on the forehead, tilaka. Sandalwood is also prized for incense, carving and fine cabinetry. Also a town in Karnataka, South India, where the Krishna and Malaprabha rivers meet; an ancient center of Kalamukha Saivism where the Vira Saivite preceptor Basavanna lived and studied as a youth.