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Isaiah, in the fourteenth verse of the thirty-eighth chapter of his Prophecies The second reason for believing that Judaism was the religion of the Indians is, that they used circumcision. The third, that they expected a Messiah. The fourth, that many words incorporated in their languages and connected with the celebration of their religious rites, were obviously either of Hebrew or Greek derivation. The fifth, that Las Casas, the bishop of Chiapa, who had the best means of verifying the fact, was of this opinion. The sixth, that the Jews themselves, including some of the most eminent rabbis, such as Menasseh Ben Israel and Montecinio, who, though not a rabbi, was a Jew who had visited America, maintained it both by verbal statement and in writing.
The seventh is the dilemma in which the most learned Spanish authors, such as Acosta and Torquemada, have placed their readers by leaving them no other alternative than to come to the decision whether the Jews had colonized America and established their rites amongst the Indians The eighth is the resemblance which many of the Indian rites and ceremonies bore to those of the Jews.
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The ninth is the similitude, which existed between many of the Indian and many of the Hebrew moral laws. The eleventh is the Mexican tradition Teoamaxtl: or divine book of the Tultecas. The twelfth is the Mexican history of their famous migration from Aztlan. The thirteenth is the traces of Jewish superstitions, history, traditions, laws, manners, and customs, which are found in the Mexican paintings.
The fourteenth is the frequency of sacrifices amongst the Indians, and the religious consecration of the blood and the fat of the victims. The fifteenth is the style of architecture of their temples. The sixteenth is the fringes which the Mexicans wore fastened to their garments. The seventeenth is a similarity in the manners and customs of Indian tribes far removed from the central monarchies of Mexico and Peru but still within the pale of religious proselytism to those of the Jews, which writers who were not Spaniards have noticed, such as Sir William Pen The word Mesi should be noted as being really Hebrew, and it agrees surprisingly with the name of the chief, head, or captain of the Mexicans.
Explorers, Missionaries et al. It is said that their altar stands on twelve stones. Their mourning lasts a year.
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The customs of their women are like those of the Jews. Their language is masculine, short, concise, and full of energy, in which it resembles the Hebrew. One word serves for three, and the rest is supplied by the understanding of the hearers. Lastly, they were to go into a country which was neithe planted nor known, and He that imposed this condition upon them, was able to level their passage thither; for we go from the eastern extremities of Asia to the western extremities of America.
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They have, too, a great unkindness for our swine; but I suppose that is because our hogs devour the clams, which are a dainty with them. Viii Supplement. All doubt having been removed by the authorities cited as to whether these nations are of Hebrew origin and a Jewish race Beatty, "and I must own, to my no small surprise, that a number of their customs appear so much to resemble those of the Jews, that it is a great question with me, whether we can expect to find among the Ten Tribes wherever they are at this day, all things considered, more of the footsteps of their ancestors than among the different Indian tribes.
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Argument II The ceremonies of the Indians in their religious worship are more after the Mosaic institution than of Pagan imitation, which could not be if the majority of old natives were of heathenish descent Argument III Agreeable to the theocracy or divine government of Israel, the Indians think the Deity to be the immediate head of their state The American Indians are so far from being atheists, as some godless Europeans have flattered themselves, to excuse their own infidelity, that they have the great sacred name of God, that describes His divine essence, and by which He manifested himself to Moses, and are firmly persuaded they now live under the immediate government of the Deity.
Argument IV As they believe in God, so they firmly believe that there is a class of higher beings angels , and a future state of existence. Argument V The Indian language and dialects appear to have the very idiom and genius of the Hebrew. There was about thirty years ago a remnant of a nation, or subdivided tribe of Indians, called Kanaai; which resembles the Hebrew proper name They called the earth yahkane, because Yah formed it as his footstool, by the power of his word.
Argument VI They count time after the manner of the Hebrews. They divide the year into spring, summer, autumn, or the fall of the leaf, and winter As the Jews had a sanctum sanctorum, or most holy place, so have all the Indian nations, particularly the Muskohge. Argument X The Hebrews had various Ablutions and Anointings, according to the Mosaic ritual; and all the Indian nations constantly observe similar customs from religious motives.
Their frequent bathing, or dipping themselves and their children in rivers, even in the severest weather, seems to be as truly Jewish as the other rites and ceremonies Argument XII Like the Jews, the greatest part of the southern Indians abstain from most things that are, either in themselves or in the general apprehension of mankind, loathsome or unclean They reckon all those animals to be unclean, that are eithe carniverous or live on nast food; as hogs, wolves, panthers, foxes, cats, mice, rats.
According to the same particular divine law of mercy, each of these Indian nations have either a house or town of refuge Argument XVI Before the Indians go to War, they have many prepatory ceremonies of purification and fasting, like what is recorded of the Israelites. Argument XVII The Indian origin and descent may also in some measure be discerned for their taste for, and kind of, ornaments. The Israelites were fond of wearing beads and other ornaments They always invoke YO He Wah a considerable space of time before they apply any medicines Argument XIX The Hebrews have at all times been careful in the Burial of their Dead: to be deprived of it was considered as one of the greatest evils.
Argument XX The Jewish records tell us, that their women mourned for the loss of their deceased husbands, and were reckoned vile by the civil law, if they married in the space, at least, of ten months after their death. In resemblance to that custom, all the Indian widows, by an established strict penal law, mourn for the loss of their deceased husbands; and among some tribes for the space of three or four years.
Argument XXI The surviving brother, by the Mosaic law, was to raise seed to a deceased brother who left a widow childless, to perpetuate his name and family, and inherit his goods and estate, or be degraded Argument XXII Although other resemblances of the Indian rites and customs to those of the Hebrews might be pointed out, not to seem tedious, I proceed to the last argument of the origin of the Indian Americans, which shall be from their own traditions, from the accounts of the English writers, and from the testimonies which the Spanish writers have given, concerning primitive inhabitants of Peru and Mexico.
The Indian tradition says, that their forefathers in very remote ages came from a far distant country, where all the people were of one colour; and that in the process of time they moved eastward to their present settlements. VIII - Supplement. In the seventh he compares the Hebrew language with some of the American idioms The nature of the crime is not explained; but it was for profaning the religion of Pachacama, who the Peruvians believed to be the sole creator of the universe and the one invisible God Kingsborough it was not unlikely that this judgment was to verify the anathema of David against God's enemies, in the sixth verse of the fifty-eighth Psalm: "Break their teeth, O God, in the north; break out the great teeth of the young lions, O Lord; save me, O my God: for thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon the cheek bone; thou hast broken the teeth of the ungodly.
The standard textbook wisdom that we all learned from grade school on up is that the Americas were discovered by the Europeans either in by Columbus, or perhaps even a few hundred years earlier by the Vikings. There seems to be an aversion among the establishment historians to even consider the idea that ancient Mediterranean peoples might have traveled to the Americas in the centuries before our era.
There are a few notable exceptions. Cyrus Gordon, one of the greatest living historians of ancient Near Eastern civilizations has promoted the idea that such peoples reached the New World for the past several decades. Actually, when one digs around a bit, it turns out that the historical and archaeological evidence is quite impressive. It has been well documented by Barry Fell in his major study, America B.
New York: Pocket Books, One of the most fascinating sites Dr. Fell surveys is located south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, a few miles west of a little town called Los Lunas. At the foot of a mini-Masada like natural plateau there is an inscription written in paleo-Hebrew. The inscription contains a slightly abridged version of the Decalogue or Ten Commandments. Anyone who is familiar with the Hebrew language, and the well-established ancient Hebrew alphabet used prior to the Common Era, can easily read this inscription.
Is it a fraud, perpetrated by some pranksters for amusement purposes? If so, it could not be much older than this century since the paleo-Hebrew alphabet was only discovered from archaeological inscriptions in the Middle East over the past years. To even suggest such an idea, for most, is to immediately dismiss it.
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However, when the Los Lunas inscription is placed in the wider context of an abundant amount of evidence, such as that presented by Dr. Fell, that ancient Mediterranean peoples did visit the New World, it becomes not only plausible but perhaps the only logical explanation for the existence of this text. In September, I visited the Los Lunas site with a group of associates for an initial survey of the evidence. I have also interviewed Prof.
Frank Hibben, local historian and archaeologist from the University of New Mexico, who is convinced the inscription is ancient and thus authentic. He reports that he first saw the text in At the time it was covered with lichen and patination and was hardly visible. He was taken to the site by a guide who had seen it as a boy, back in the s. Thus we have eye-witness evidence, going back over a hundred years, that the inscription existed.
This alone is impressive, since it is rather preposterous to imagine some pranksters or forgers operating with a knowledge of paleo-Hebrew in the late s, when this ancient alphabet was not even fully known to the scholars. Associated with the inscription is the mountain itself, which shows evidence of fortification and ancient habitation, whether by native Americans or whomever. The Decalogue inscription is located at the foot of the mountain, on the north, at the only accessible pathway going up.
The top of the mountain is a flat plateau with many ruins. The whole area is covered with drawings on rocks called petroglyphs. One of the most interesting of these petroglyphs is what appears to be a sky-map, laid out on a flat rock, recording the positions of the planets and constellations during a solar eclipse.
Researcher David Deal, to whom we owe credit for a drawing of the site, has identified the eclipse astronomically as occurring on September 15, B.